top of page

The Fabric of Good Life

  • Writer's picturePHABRIQ

Blue Ocean Strategy: Creating Uncontested Market Space for Your Business

In today's highly competitive business environment, many companies find themselves locked in fierce battles for market share. Traditional strategies often focus on outperforming rivals in existing markets, leading to what is known as a "red ocean" filled with intense competition. However, there is an alternative approach that can lead to unprecedented growth and profitability: Blue Ocean Strategy. Developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, this strategy emphasizes creating new, uncontested market space, rendering the competition irrelevant. This article explores the principles of Blue Ocean Strategy and provides practical insights on how to apply them to your business.

Blue Ocean Strategy PHABRIQ

Understanding Blue Ocean Strategy

Blue Ocean Strategy is a business methodology that encourages companies to break away from the saturated market competition by creating new demand in an uncontested market space. This approach focuses on innovation and value creation rather than competing for existing customers. The core idea is to make the competition irrelevant by redefining market boundaries and offering unique value propositions that appeal to non-customers.

Key Concepts:

Red Ocean vs. Blue Ocean: In Red Oceans, industries are well-defined, and companies try to outperform their rivals to grab a larger share of existing demand. This often leads to fierce competition and shrinking profits. In contrast, Blue Oceans represent untapped market spaces where demand is created rather than fought over. Here, competition is irrelevant because the rules of the game are yet to be set.

Value Innovation: At the heart of Blue Ocean Strategy is the concept of value innovation. This means creating a leap in value for both the company and its customers, thereby opening up new and uncontested market space. Value innovation is achieved by simultaneously pursuing differentiation and low cost, breaking the traditional trade-off between value and cost.

Principles of Blue Ocean Strategy

Reconstruct Market Boundaries: One of the fundamental principles of Blue Ocean Strategy is to look beyond the existing market boundaries and explore new opportunities. This involves examining alternative industries, strategic groups within industries, buyer groups, complementary products and services, functional or emotional appeal, and even the time dimension.

Real-World Example: Cirque du Soleil successfully reconstructed the boundaries of the circus industry by combining elements of traditional circus with the sophistication of theater. This allowed them to create a unique entertainment experience that attracted a completely new audience.

Focus on the Big Picture, Not the Numbers: Strategic planning often gets bogged down in number crunching and detailed analysis. Blue Ocean Strategy encourages a focus on the big picture through visualizing strategy and engaging in the strategy canvas—a visual representation of the current competitive landscape and future opportunities.

Real-World Example: Southwest Airlines focused on the big picture by identifying the needs of price-sensitive travelers who were using cars and buses for long-distance travel. By offering low-cost air travel with essential services, they tapped into a new customer base.

Reach Beyond Existing Demand: Instead of focusing solely on existing customers, Blue Ocean Strategy emphasizes reaching out to non-customers and understanding their needs. There are three tiers of non-customers: those who are on the edge of your market, those who refuse your offerings, and those who have never considered your market.

Real-World Example: Nintendo Wii targeted non-customers, including casual gamers and older adults, by offering intuitive motion-sensing controls and a range of family-friendly games. This broadened their market beyond traditional gamers.

Get the Strategic Sequence Right: To maximize the chances of successful implementation, it is crucial to follow a strategic sequence that includes utility, price, cost, and adoption. First, ensure the offering has exceptional utility. Then set a strategic price that attracts the mass of target buyers, achieve your target cost to profit, and finally address any adoption hurdles.

Real-World Example: iTunes followed this sequence by offering a user-friendly platform with a vast selection of songs at a strategic price, ensuring production costs were managed, and addressing legal and distribution challenges to promote adoption.

Implementing Blue Ocean Strategy

Step 1: Formulate Your Strategy
  1. Visual Awakening: Begin by visualizing the current state of play. Use strategy canvases to compare your business with competitors across key factors and identify areas where you can differentiate.

  2. Visual Exploration: Go into the field to observe the distinctive advantages and pain points of existing offerings. Engage with non-customers to understand why they refuse to engage with the market and what might attract them.

  3. Visual Strategy Fair: Present your strategic options to stakeholders and get feedback on which blue ocean opportunities seem most promising. This collaborative process helps refine ideas and ensures buy-in from key players.

Step 2: Execute Your Strategy
  1. Visual Communication: Clearly communicate your blue ocean strategy throughout the organization using visual tools and strategic roadmaps. This ensures everyone understands the new direction and their role in achieving it.

  2. Tipping Point Leadership: Focus on overcoming organizational hurdles by concentrating resources on the factors that are critical to breakthrough performance. Identify and leverage your tipping points—those elements that can create the most significant impact with the least effort.

  3. Fair Process: Engage employees and stakeholders in the execution process through fair process principles: engagement, explanation, and clarity of expectations. This builds trust and commitment to the new strategy.

Case Studies in Blue Ocean Strategy

Cirque du Soleil: Redefining Circus Entertainment

Cirque du Soleil revolutionized the circus industry by blending traditional circus acts with sophisticated theater performance. By removing costly elements like star performers and animals and enhancing the experience with storylines, original music, and elaborate costumes, they created a new form of entertainment that appealed to a broader audience. This approach allowed them to charge premium prices while keeping costs low.

Southwest Airlines: Low-Cost Air Travel

Southwest Airlines identified an untapped market of travelers who would typically use cars or buses for long-distance travel. By focusing on low-cost, no-frills air travel, Southwest offered affordable flights with high-frequency schedules. Their strategy included quick turnaround times at airports, a single aircraft model to reduce maintenance costs, and a unique employee culture that emphasized efficiency and customer service. This enabled Southwest to create a new market space within the airline industry.

Nintendo Wii: Expanding the Gaming Market

Nintendo's Wii console broke away from the traditional gaming market, which focused on high-end graphics and complex gameplay aimed at hardcore gamers. Instead, Nintendo targeted a broader audience, including non-gamers and older adults, with motion-sensing controls and a range of easy-to-play, family-friendly games. This approach expanded the gaming market by attracting new segments of customers who had never considered gaming before.

Common Challenges and How to Overcome Them

Challenge 1: Identifying True Blue Ocean Opportunities

It can be challenging to distinguish between genuine blue ocean opportunities and mere extensions of existing markets. Businesses must conduct thorough market research and engage with potential non-customers to uncover unmet needs and desires.

Solution: Use tools like the Strategy Canvas and Four Actions Framework to systematically explore and validate blue ocean opportunities. Engage in visual exploration to gain firsthand insights from the field.

Challenge 2: Overcoming Organizational Resistance

Implementing a blue ocean strategy often requires significant changes in organizational culture and operations, which can meet with resistance from employees and stakeholders accustomed to the status quo.

Solution: Apply tipping point leadership to focus efforts on the most critical areas for change. Use fair process to involve employees in the strategy development and execution stages, ensuring they understand the reasons behind the changes and their roles in the new strategy.

Challenge 3: Sustaining Momentum

Creating a blue ocean is not a one-time effort; it requires continuous innovation and adaptation to maintain the uncontested market space. Businesses must remain vigilant and responsive to changes in the market and competitive landscape.

Solution: Foster a culture of continuous improvement and innovation. Regularly revisit and update the strategy canvas to track progress and identify new opportunities for differentiation and value creation.

Implementation Tips for Business Leaders

  1. Embrace Creativity and Innovation: Encourage a culture that values creativity and innovation. Provide employees with the resources and freedom to explore new ideas and challenge conventional thinking.

  2. Focus on Customer Needs: Prioritize understanding and addressing the unmet needs of both existing and potential customers. Use customer insights to drive the development of new products and services.

  3. Utilize Visual Tools: Leverage visual tools like the Strategy Canvas to communicate and refine your blue ocean strategy. These tools help simplify complex concepts and facilitate better understanding across the organization.

  4. Encourage Collaboration: Promote cross-functional collaboration to generate diverse perspectives and ideas. Collaborative efforts can lead to more innovative solutions and ensure alignment with the overall strategy.

  5. Monitor and Adapt: Continuously monitor the market and competitive landscape to stay ahead of trends and changes. Be prepared to adapt your strategy as needed to maintain your blue ocean position.


Blue Ocean Strategy provides a powerful framework for creating uncontested market space and achieving sustained growth. By focusing on value innovation, reconstructing market boundaries, and reaching beyond existing demand, businesses can unlock new opportunities and make the competition irrelevant. Implementing this strategy requires a shift in mindset, a focus on customer needs, and a commitment to continuous innovation. With the right approach, your business can navigate the complexities of the modern market and thrive in a blue ocean of its own making.

By following these principles and continuously iterating based on feedback, your business can achieve sustainable growth and remain competitive in an ever-changing market. Blue Ocean Strategy not only offers a roadmap for creating new demand but also fosters a culture of creativity, resilience, and customer-centricity essential for long-term success.



Can Yoga Reverse Aging? Exploring the Science and Benefits


Can Yoga Reverse Aging? Exploring the Science and Benefits

Explore how yoga can influence the aging process and discover its potential to promote longevity and enhance overall well-being.

Flow Theory - State of Optimal Experience


Flow Theory - State of Optimal Experience

“The best moments usually occur when a person's body or mind is stretched to its limits...” – Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)


Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)

“Behavior is a function of what we believe we can do, what we want to do, and what others expect us to do.” – Icek Ajzen

Self-Efficacy Theory - Motivation in Sports


Self-Efficacy Theory - Motivation in Sports

“Whether you think you can, or you think you can’t – you’re right.” – Henry Ford

Achievement Goal Theory (AGT) in Sports


Achievement Goal Theory (AGT) in Sports

“The way athletes define success and perceive their goals can significantly influence their motivation, performance, and overall experience.

Liberation from Suffering - Nirvana - Buddhism


Liberation from Suffering - Nirvana - Buddhism

If there were not, there would be no escape from the world of the born, become, made, and compounded.” – The Buddha